Vulnerability Assessment

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A vulnerability assessment is the process of defining, identifying, classifying and prioritizing vulnerabilities in computer systems, applications and network infrastructures and providing the organization doing the assessment with the necessary knowledge, awareness and risk background to understand the threats to its environment and react appropriately.
It is not isolated to a single field and is applied to systems across different industries, such as:
•IT systems
•Energy and other utility systems
•Communication systems

Organizations of any size, or even individuals who face an increased risk of cyberattacks, can benefit from some form of vulnerability assessment, but large enterprises and other types of organizations that are subject to ongoing attacks will benefit most from vulnerability analysis.

Because security vulnerabilities can enable hackers to access IT systems and applications, it is essential for enterprises to identify and remediate weaknesses before they can be exploited. A comprehensive vulnerability assessment along with a management program can help companies improve the security of their systems.

Advantages of Vulnerability Assessment
This process offers the organization a better understanding of its assets, security flaws and overall risk, reducing the likelihood that a cybercriminal will breach its systems and catch the business off guard.
•Open Source tools are available.
•Identifies almost all vulnerabilities
•Automated for Scanning.
•Easy to run on a regular basis.

Some of the different types of vulnerability assessment scans include the following:
•Network-based scans are used to identify possible network security attacks. This type of scan can also detect vulnerable systems on wired or wireless networks.
•Host-based scans are used to locate and identify vulnerabilities in servers, workstations or other network hosts. This type of scan usually examines ports and services that may also be visible to network-based scans, but it offers greater visibility into the configuration settings and patch history of scanned systems.
•Wireless network scans of an organization's Wi-Fi networks usually focus on points of attack in the wireless network infrastructure. In addition to identifying rogue access points, a wireless network scan can also validate that a company's network is securely configured.
•Application scans can be used to test websites in order to detect known software vulnerabilities and erroneous configurations in network or web applications.
•Database scans can be used to identify the weak points in a database so as to prevent malicious attacks, such as SQL injection attacks.

Vulnerability Testing Methods
Active Testing
•Inactive Testing, a tester introduces new test data and analyzes the results.
•During the testing process, the testers create a mental model of the process, and it will grow further during the interaction with the software under test.
•While doing the test, the tester will actively involve in the process of finding out the new test cases and new ideas. That's why it is called Active Testing.

Passive Testing
Passive testing, monitoring the result of running software under test without introducing new test cases or data

Network Testing
•Network Testing is the process of measuring and recording the current state of network operation over a period of time.
•Testing is mainly done for predicting the network operating under load or to find out the problems created by new services.

We need to Test the following Network Characteristics:-
•Utilization levels
•Number of Users
•Application Utilization

Distributed Testing
•Distributed Tests are applied for testing distributed applications, which means, the applications that are working with multiple clients simultaneously. Basically, testing a distributed application means testing its client and server parts separately, but by using a distributed testing method, we can test them all together.
•The test parts will interact with each other during the Test Run. This makes them synchronized in an appropriate manner. Synchronization is one of the most crucial points in distributed testing.
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