Machine Learning

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Machine Learning is the science of getting computers to learn and act like humans do, and improve their learning over time in autonomous fashion, by feeding them data and information in the form of observations and real-world interactions.
Machine Learning is a subset of artificial intelligence which focuses mainly on machine learning from their experience and making predictions based on its experience.

It enables the computers or the machines to make data-driven decisions rather than being explicitly programmed for carrying out a certain task. These programs or algorithms are designed in a way that they learn and improve over time when are exposed to new data.

Types of Machine Learning
Machine learning is sub-categorized into three types:
•Supervised Learning: is the one, where you can consider the learning is guided by a teacher. We have a dataset which acts as a teacher and its role is to train the model or the machine. Once the model gets trained it can start making a prediction or decision when new data is given to it.
•Unsupervised Learning: The model learns through observation and finds structures in the data. Once the model is given a dataset, it automatically finds patterns and relationships in the dataset by creating clusters in it. What it cannot do is add labels to the cluster, like it cannot say this a group of apples or mangoes, but it will separate all the apples from mangoes.
•Reinforcement Learning: It is the ability of an agent to interact with the environment and find out what is the best outcome. It follows the concept of hit and trial method. The agent is rewarded or penalized with a point for a correct or a wrong answer, and on the basis of the positive reward points gained the model trains itself. And again once trained it gets ready to predict the new data presented to it.

Regardless of learning style or function, all combinations of machine learning algorithms consist of the following:
Representation (a set of classifiers or the language that a computer understands)
•Evaluation (aka objective/scoring function)
•Optimization (search method; often the highest-scoring classifier, for example; there are both off-the-shelf and custom optimization methods used)

Processes and techniques
Various processes, techniques and methods can be applied to one or more types of machine learning algorithms to enhance their performance.
•Feature learning: Feature learning algorithms often attempt to preserve the information in their input but also transform it in a way that makes it useful, often as a pre-processing step before performing classification or predictions
•Sparse dictionary learning: Sparse dictionary learning is a feature learning method where a training example is represented as a linear combination of basis functions, and is assumed to be a sparse matrix. The method is strongly NP-hard and difficult to solve approximately.
•Anomaly detection: Anomaly detection is the identification of rare items, events or observations which raise suspicions by differing significantly from the majority of the data
•Decision trees: Decision tree learning uses a decision tree as a predictive model to go from observations about an item (represented in the branches) to conclusions about the item's target value (represented in the leaves).
•Association rules: Association rule learning is a rule-based machine learning method for discovering relationships between variables in large databases. It is intended to identify strong rules discovered in databases using some measure of "interestingness"
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